Reasoning – 9

Reasoning – 9

In the following questions a statement is given followed by three conclusions. Read them carefully and then answer:
(A) If the conclusion follows from the given statement
(B) If the conclusion contradicts the given statement
(C) If the conclusion neither follows from nor contradicts the given statement.

1. Statement: Boys are illogical.
Conclusions: Nobody is despised who can manage a dog.
Illogical persons are despised.
Therefore boys cannot manage dogs.
Ans: (A)

2. Statement: My plates are the only things I have that are made of glass.
Conclusions: I find all your presents very useful.
None of my plates are of the slightest use.
Therefore, your presents to me are made of glass.
Ans: (C)

3. Statement: Everyone who is sane can do logic.
Conclusions: No lunatics are fit to serve on the jury.
None of your sons can do logic.
Therefore, none of your sons are fit to serve on a jury.
Ans: (A)

4. Statement: No experienced engineer is incompetent.
Conclusion: Ram is always blundering.
No competent person is always blundering.
Therefore, Ram is not an engineer.
Ans: (C)

5. Statement: No one is taken in ‘The Times’ unless he is well educated.
Conclusion: No hodgepogs can read.
Those who cannot read are not well educated
Therefore, all hodgepogs are taken in ‘The Times’
Ans: (B)

The following four statements are about the composition of participants in five different get together.

(A) The number of male participants is the same as the number of female participants but is not quite so large as the number of child participants.
(B) The number of male participants is larger than both the number of female and child participants.
(C) The number of child participants is larger than the number of male participants which is larger than the number of female participants.
(D) The number of female participants is the same as the number of male participants, but the number of child participants is less than the number of female participants.
The following questions in the form of statements that is logically equivalent to one and only of the above four statements marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). For each question select which of the above is its logical equivalent.

6. The number of female participants is the same as the number of male participants but is not so small as the number child participants.
Ans: (D)

7. The number of female participants is less than the number of male participants which is not as large as the number of child participants.
Ans: (C)

8. The numbers of male and female participants are both less than the number of child participants and the former two numbers are same.
Ans: (A)

9. The number of female participants is less than that of male participants which is larger than that of child participants.
Ans: (B)

10. The number of male participants is larger than that of the child participants and is equal to the number of female participants.
Ans: (D)

Read the following information and then answer the questions that follow:
X, Y, Z and W, are four friends who do not mind exchanging items.
X had two chess boards each costing Rs 500 and a record player.
Z originally had a cycle and a Walkman.
Each cricket bat costs Rs 700.
Both W and Z got a cricket bat from Y.
X gave his record player costing Rs 2000 to Y.
Z got a camera costing Rs 1500 from W
The cycle Z had costs Rs 1000 and the Walkman Rs 700.
Y had three cricket bats at the beginning and W had two cameras total cost of which is Rs 5000.
X gave one of his chess board to Z and took Z’s cycle.
Z gave his Walkman to W.

11. Total cost of materials that Z had at the beginning was:
(a) Rs 1700 (b) Rs 2100 (c) Rs 3000 (d) Rs 5000.
Ans: (a)

12. At the beginning who had the costliest items?
(a) X (b) Z (c) Y (d) W
Ans: (d)

13. After exchange of items, Y had
(a) One cricket bat
(b) One record player
(c) One cricket bat and one record player
(d) One record player and one camera
Ans: (c)

14. After exchange of items who had the items total cost of which is Rs 1500?
(a) X (b) Y (c) Z (d) W
Ans: (a)

15. Who made profits after exchange of items?
(a) X and Y (b) Y and Z (c) Z and W (d) W and X
Ans: (b)

16. Who have no cricket bat at the end of exchange of items?
(a) X (b) Y (c) Z (d) W
Ans: (a)

17. In the process of exchange of items, Y received an item from whom?
(a) X (b) Z (c) W (d) none
Ans: (a)

18. At the end of exchange of items, W had in his possession
(a) One cricket bat and one Walkman
(b) One cricket bat and one camera
(c) One camera and one Walkman
(d) One camera, one Walkman and one cricket bat
Ans: (d)

19. Who incurred maximum loss after the exchange of items?
(a) X (b) Y (c) Z (d) W
Ans: (a)

20. After completion of exchange of items , X had with him an item which no one else had. What is the item?
(a) Walkman
(b) Cycle
(c) Record Player
(d) Chess Board
Ans: (b)

Reasoning – Decision Making

Reasoning – Decision Making

The following are the criteria for registration to a Training Workshop. The participant must:
(i) Be more than 30 years of age.
(ii) Be a graduate with 60% marks.
(iii) Have at least four years of experience of working in industry.
(iv) Be sponsored by his/her employer for the workshop.
(v) Have sent one paper for presentation in the workshop.

However, if a person fulfils all other criteria except for:
(a) (iii) above – should be registered as a Trainee participant.
(b) (ii) above – regarding percentage of marks but is a Post-Graduate should be registered
(c) (i) above – should be referred to the workshop coordinator.

Based on these criteria and the information provided in each case, make the decision regarding registration for the workshop. Do not assume anything and if the information provided is not adequate to take a decision – the answer would be data inadequate. Study each case and give answer:

(A) If to be registered
(B) If to be registered as a Trainee participant
(C) If to be referred to the Workshop Coordinator
(D) If data inadequate
(E) If NOT to be registered.

1. 31 years old Kavita Sinha has 66% marks in her post – graduation. She has two years of experience of industry and has been sponsored by her employer. She has also submitted the paper.

2. 31 years old Anjanee Konar is a Post – Graduate in Economics. She has been sponsored by her employer and has submitted the paper. She has been working in the industry for ten years.

3. Mohan Dule has been working in the industry for the last six years. He informed he will not be submitting the paper. He has been sponsored by his employer. He is 29 years old and has got 64% marks in graduation.

4. Vijay Madhav is 32 years old and has been working in the industry for the last seven years. He has been sponsored by his employer and has sent the paper.

5. Ram Vilavan is a graduate with 60% marks and has three years’ experience in the industry. He is 31 years old and has submitted the paper.

6. Dipen Shah is a post-graduate with 5 years’ experience in the industry. He is 38 years old and has been sponsored by his employer. He will not present the paper in the workshop.

7. Ashok Dongre is 35 years old and has submitted the paper. He has 3 years’ experience in the industry and has been sponsored by his employer. He scored 59% marks in graduation.

8. Vinay Kelkar has been sponsored by his employer. He is 36 years old and will not be presenting the paper. He is a post-graduate with 4 years’ industry experience.

9. Madhu Sapre has got 2 years’ experience in industry. She has submitted the paper. She is a post-graduate and has been sponsored by her employer.

10. 45 years old Ragini Ratan has been sponsored by her employer. She has got 59% marks in her post-graduation and has 6 years’ experience of industry. She has sent the paper for presentation.

Answers:

1. (B) (Condition (iii) not fulfilled)

2. (A) ( All conditions are fulfilled)

3. (E) (Condition (e) not fulfilled)

4. (D) (Information regarding age is not given)

5. (B) (Condition (iii) not fulfilled)

6. (E) (Not complied with condition (e))

7. (E) (Condition (ii) and (iii) not fulfilled)

8. (E) (Condition (e) not complied with)

9. (D) (Information on age is not given)

10. (A) (All conditions are fulfilled)

Note: For questions 4 and 9 Option (D) could also be a possible answer.

English – Verbal – 20

English – Verbal – 20

Each of the following questions begin with a sentence that has either one or two blanks. Each sentence is followed by five answer choices consisting of words or phrases. Identify the answer choice that completes the sentence best.

1. The fundamental ————- between dogs and cats is for the most part a myth; members of these species often coexist ———–.
(a) Antipathy — amiably
(b) Disharmony — uneasily
(c) Compatibility — together
(d) Relationship — peacefully
(e) Difference — placidly
Ans: (c)

2. His desire to state his case completely was certainly reasonable; however, his lengthy technical explanations were monotonous and tended to ———- rather than ———- the jury.
(a) Enlighten — inform
(b) Interest — persuade
(c) Provoke — influence
(d) Allay — pacify
(e) Bore — convince
Ans: (e)

3. In some countries, government restrictions are ———— that businesses operate with nearly complete impunity.
(a) Traditional
(b) Judicious
(c) Ambiguous
(d) Exacting
(e) Lax
Ans: (c)

4. The recent Oxford edition of the works of Shakespeare is ————- because it not only departs frequently from the readings of most other modern editions, but also challenges many of the basic ———– of textual criticism.
(a) Controversial — conventions
(b) Typical — innovations
(c) Inadequate — norms
(d) Curious — projects
(e) Pretentious — explanations
Ans: (a)

5. The early form of writing known as Linear B was ———- in 1952, but no one has yet succeeded in the ———– of the still more ancient Linear A.
(a) Superseded — explanation
(b) Encoded — transcription
(c) Obliterated — analysis
(d) Deciphered — interpretation
(e) Discovered — obfuscation
Ans: (d)

6. Considering everything she had been through, her reaction was quite normal and even ———-;
I was therefore surprised at the number of ———— comments and raised eyebrows that her response elicited.
(a) Commendable — complimentary
(b) Odious — insulting
(c) Apologetic — conciliatory
(d) Commonplace — typical
(e) Laudable — derogatory
Ans: (e)

7. The purpose of the proposed insurance policy is to ———– the burden of medical costs, thereby removing what is for many people a major ———– medical care.
(a) Augment — problem with
(b) Eliminate — perquisite of
(c) Ameliorate — study of
(d) Assuage — impediment to
(e) Clarify — explanation for
Ans: (b)

Each of the following questions begins with a single word in capital letters. Five answer choices follow. Select the answer choice that has the most opposite meaning of the word in capital letters.
Since some of the questions requires distinguishing fine shades of meaning, be sure to consider all the choices before deciding your selection.

8. UNDERMINE
(a) Appreciate
(b) Donate
(c) Bolster
(d) Decay
(e) Simplify
Ans: (c)

9. OBSEQUIOUS
(a) Original
(b) Haughty
(c) Casual
(d) Virtuous
(e) Informative
Ans: (b)

10. BLANCH
(a) Stand
(b) Repay
(c) Flush
(d) Relax
(e) Cope
Ans: (C)

11. DISSIPATED
(a) Temperate
(b) Pleased
(c) Inundated
(d) Encouraged
(e) Planned
Ans: (a)

12. FECUNDITY
(a) Levity
(b) Sanity
(c) Cowardice
(d) Sterility
(e) Ventilation
Ans: (d)

13. ENCUMBER
(a) Animate
(b) Inaugurate
(c) Bleach
(d) Disburden
(e) Obliterate
Ans: (d)

14. DISSEMINATE
(a) Fertilize
(b) Ordain
(c) Suppress
(d) Explain thoroughly
(e) Make an impression
Ans: (c)

Time & Work (Selective Placement Questions)

Time & Work (Selective Placement Questions)

1. 5 men working 6 hours a day can make 10 toys in 6 days. Then in how many days 12 men working 8 hours per day can make 16 toys?
Ans: 3 days.
(Points to note in these types of questions:
More work, more days. More hours, less number of days, More men, less number of days and conversely the same applies.)
The easy way of answering the above question is to segment the given information keeping the one that is to be arrived at the end.
Men Toys Hours Days
5 10 6 6
12 16 8 x (Now relate each segment with the last keeping the above in mind)

X = 6 x 5/12 x 16/10 x 6/8 —– Reducing we get X = 3 days.

2. 12 men and 16 boys can do a piece of work in 5 days. 13 men and 24 boys can do the same work in 4 days. How long will 7 men and 10 boys take to do the same work?
Ans: 8 1/3 days.
12 M + 16 B = 5 days In 1 day —— 1/12 M + 1/16 B = 1/5 —– (i)

13 M + 24 B = 4 days In 1 day —— 1/13 M + 1/24 B = 1/4 —– (ii) Equating both (i) and (ii)
We get
60 M + 80 B = 52 M + 96 B -> 8 M = 16B -> 1 M = 2B

7M + 10B -> 7M + 5M = 12M. From Equation (i) we find – 12M + 8 M = 20M takes 5 days.

Hence 12 M will take —– 5 x 20/12 = 8 1/3 days.

3. If 5 men and 3 boys can reap 23 acres in 4 days and 3 men and 2 boys can reap 7 acres in 2 days then how many boys should help 7 men reap 45 acres in 6 days?
Ans: 2 boys.
Let ‘m’ and ‘b’ be unknown work done by a man and a boy in one day. Thus we now have
4 x (5m + 3b) = 23 ——- (i) and
2 x (3m + 2b) = 7 ——–(ii)
Equating the two we get —- 20m + 12b = 23 —— (i) and
6m + 4b = 7 ——(ii)
Multiplying (ii) by 3 and subtracting from (i) we get — 2m = 2 and one ‘m’ = 1
Substituting this value of ‘m’ in equation (ii) we get
2 x (3*1 + 2b)= 7 —– 6 + 4b = 7 -> 4b = 1 and b = 1/4
Thus we now have — 1man in one day can reap 1 acre and 1boy in one day can reap 1/4 acre.
Hence, 7 men in 6 days will reap —- 7x1x6 = 42 acres.
Total acres to be reaped is 45 acres and the boys in 6 days will have to reap 3 acres.
So the number of boys required to reap in one day —– 3/ (1/4 *6) -> 2
Hence, 2 boys will have to assist the 7 men in reaping 45 acres of land in 6 days.

4. A and B are working on your car. A alone can complete the work in six hours while B takes eight hours to complete the same work. A and B together start the work and after 2 hours A leaves to attend some other work. In how much more time B will be able to complete the job?
Ans: 3 1/3 hours.
A in one hour can do —– 1/6 job. In 2 hours can do —- 2/6 -> 1/3 job.
B in one hour can do —– 1/8 job. In 2 hours can do —- 2/8 -> 1/4 job.
Thus in 2 hours A & B together would have completed —– 1/3 + 1/4 = 7/12 work.
The remaining work is — 1 – 7/12 = 5/12. This will have to be completed by B alone.
B will take —– (5/12) / (1/8) —- 3 1/3 hours.

5. A and B together can finish a job in T days. A alone can complete the job in (T+5) days while B takes (T+45) days to finish the job. What is the value of T?
Ans: 15 days
A in one day will do –—- 1/T+5 work.
B in one day will do —— 1/T+45 work.
Thus we have an equation ——————- 1/T+5 + 1/T+45 = 1/T
(T+45) + (T + 5) / (T+5)(T+45) = 1/T proceeding further we get
T(T+45) + T(T+5) = (T+5)(T+45) -> T2 + 45T + T2 + 5T = T2 + 45T + 5T + 225
Reducing the equation we get —— T2 = 225 and T = 15.

6. Two workers A & B manufactured a batch of identical parts. A worked for 2 hours and B worked for 3 hours and they did half the job. They worked together for another 3 hours and 1/20 of the job is left out. How much time B would have taken if he had worked alone to complete the job?
Ans: 15 hours
Let ‘x’ and ‘y’ be the time taken by A and B separately to complete the job alone.
We now have an equation —- 2/x + 3/y = 1/2 (job) ——– (i)
After A and B working together for 3 hours the remaining job is —1/20
Thus 19/20 job was already done by A and B individually and jointly.
A and B in 3 hours have completed —- 1 – 1/2 – 1/20 = 9/20 job.
We now have a second equation —- 3/x + 3/y = 9/20 —— (ii)
Solving (i) and (ii) we get the value of ‘y’ as 15 hours.

7. A can do a piece of work in 80 days. He works on it for 10 days and then leave. B then finishes the remaining work in 42 days. If A and B together had worked then in how many days they would have completed the work?
Ans: 30 days.
A in one day can do 1/80 job. So in 10 days he had finished 10/80 -> 1/8 job.
The remaining job was 7/8 and this B completed in 42 days.
So, B in one day can do —- (7/8) / 42 -> 7/ 336 -> 1/48
Thus A and B in one day can do —– 1/80 + 1/48 = (3 + 5)/ 240 -> 8/240 -> 1/30.
Hence A and B together will complete the job in 30 days.

8. 15 men working 8 hours per day take 21 days to complete a work. In how many days 21 women working at 6 hours per day would take to complete the same job if 3 women do as much work as 2 men?
Ans: 30 days.
3 women do as much work as 2 men. So, the 21 women will be equivalent to 14 men.
We can now segment the information as under:
15 M 8 Hours 21 days.
14 M* 6 Hours x days (* relates to 21 women)

X = 21 x 15/14 x 8/6 = 30 days.

Pipes & Cistern (Some Selective Questions)

Pipes & Cistern – (Some Selective Questions)

Short methods for answering some of the questions:
Let there be three pipes A, B and C. Let us assume that:
Pipe A takes ‘x’ minutes to fill
Pipe B takes ‘y’ minutes to fill/drain
Pipe C takes ‘z’ minutes to fill/drain.

If A and B are opened, the time taken to fill is given by —- xy/(x + y)

If A, B and C are opened the time taken to fill is given by — xyz/ (xz + yz + xy)

If A fills and B drains the time taken to fill is given by ——- xy/ (y-x)

If A and B fills and C drains the time taken to fill is given by — xyz/ (xz + yz – xy)

1. Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 36 hours and 45 hours respectively. If both the pipes are opened simultaneously, then, in how much time the tank will be full?
Ans: 20 hours. ( Use the formula — xy/x+y)

2. A pipe can fill the tank in 15 hours. But due to a leak at the bottom it takes 20 hours to fill.If the tank is full then in how much time the leak will empty the tank?
Ans: 60 hours. (Use the formula — xy/y-x. Treat the leak as another pipe that drains the tank)

3. Pipe A and pipe B can fill a tank in 20 hours and 30 hours respectively while pipe C can drain a full tank in 40 hours. If all the three pipes are opened in how much time the tank will become full?
Ans: 17.14 hours (approx.) (use the formula — xyz/ (xz+yz-xy)

4. Pipe A fills a tank of capacity 700 liters at the rate of 40 liters per minute. Pipe B fills the same tank at the rate of 30 liters per minute. Pipe C at the bottom of the tank drains at the rate of 20 liters per minute. If pipe A is kept open for a minute and closed, followed by pipe B also kept open for a minute and closed and finally pipe C kept open for a minute and closed. If these successive operations continue in how much time the tank will be full?
Ans: 42 minutes.
Pipe A in one minute fills —– 40 liters
Pipe B in one minute fills —– 30 liters
Pipe C in one minute drains – 20 liters.
Thus in 3 minutes the tank gets filled ——– 40 + 30 – 20 = 50 liters. (This is one cycle of operation)
The tank capacity is 700 liters and to fill completely will require
700/50 = 14 cycles. Since each cycle of operation is 3 minutes the
total time required to fill the tank is —– 14 x 3 = 42 minutes.

5. Nine large pipes will drain a pond in eight hours and 6 small pipes will drain the same pond in sixteen hours. How long will it take 3 large pipes and 5 small pipes to drain the pond?
Ans: 10 hours 40 minutes or 10 2/3 hours.
9 large pipes take 8 hours to drain the tank.
In one hour 9 large pipes will drain 1/8 tank and
One large pipe in one hour will drain —-1/8 x 1/9 = 1/72 tank.
3 large pipes in one hour will drain — 3 x 1/72 -> 3/72 -> 1/24 tank. ——— (i)
6 small pipes take 16 hours to drain the tank.
In one hour 6 small pipes will drain 1/16 tank and
One small pipe in one hour will drain —- 1/16 x 1/6 = 1/96 tank.
5 small pipes in one hour will drain — 5 x 1/96 -> 5/96 tank. ——————–(ii)
Thus in one hour
3 large pipes and 5 small pipes will drain (i) + (ii) —— 1/24 + 5/96 -> 27/288 -> 3/32 tank.
Hence to drain the entire tank the time taken will be — 32/3 -> 10 2/3 hours.

6. Two pipes A and B can fill a cistern in 12 minutes and 15 minutes respectively, but a third pipe C can empty the full cistern in 6 minutes. A and B are kept open for 5 minutes after which C also is opened. In how much more time the cistern will be empty?
Ans: 45 minutes.
Pipe A in one minute fills — 1/12 . In 5 minutes it will fill —- 5/12 cistern.—— (i)
Pipe B in one minute fills — 1/15 . In 5 minutes it will fill —5/15 -> 1/3 cistern — (ii)
Thus in 5 minutes A and B would have filled —– (i) + (ii) — 5/12 + 1/3 -> (5+4)/12 = ¾ cistern
Hence after 5 minutes the cistern is full up to ¾ level.
Now pipe C also is opened.
In one minute all the three pipes would fill/drain —
1/12 + 1/15 – 1/6 -> (5 + 4 – 10)/60 = -1/60. (minus)
So in each minute the cistern gets drained up 1/60 level.
The cistern was ¾ full when C was opened.
So the time to drain this quantity ——– (3/4) / (1/60) = 45 minutes.

7. 12 buckets of water with each bucket capacity 13.5 liters will fill a tank. How many buckets of capacity 9 liters will be required to fill the tank?
Ans: 18
The capacity of the tank is —– 13.5 x 12 = 162 liters.
The number of buckets of capacity 9 liters required to fill this quantity — 162/9 = 18 buckets.

8. A leak in the bottom of a tank can empty the full tank in 6 hours. Let this leak be called B.
An inlet pipe A can fill the tank at the rate of 4 liters per minute. When the tank is full the inlet pipe is opened and due to the leak it now takes 8 hours to drain. What is the capacity of the tank in liters?
Ans: 5760 liters.
Let the capacity be ‘x’ . Then A takes —– x/4×60 -> x/240 minutes to fill. —– (i)
B takes ——- x/ 6 x60 -> x/360 minutes to drain.
When these two are in operation, the tank gets filled —- x/240 – x/360 = x/720 liters.
Now it is given the time to drain a full tank now is – 8 hours.
Thus we have — x/720 = 8 hours — or ‘x’ = 5760 liters.