Reasoning – 8

Reasoning – 8

Arguments

In making decisions about important questions it is desirable to distinguish between ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ arguments so far as they relate to the question. ‘Weak’ arguments may not directly be related to the question and may be of minor importance or may be related the trivial aspects of the question.

Each question below is followed by two arguments, marked I and II. Please decide which of the arguments a strong argument and which is weak argument.

Mark answer (a) if only argument I alone is strong.
Mark (b) if argument II is strong.
Mark (c) if either argument I or II is strong.
Mark (d) if neither I nor II is strong.
Mark (e) if both the arguments are strong.

1. Should Doordarshan be given autonomous status?
(I) Yes. It will help Doordarshan to have fair and impartial coverage of all important events.
(II) No. The coverage of events will be decided by a few who may not have a healthy outlook.

2. Should private companies be allowed to operate air services in India?
(I) Yes. Indian private management usually gives better services.
(II) No. We should not imitate the western countries.

3. Should all the remote parts of the country be connected by road?
(I) No. It will disturb the peaceful simple life of the villagers.
(II) Yes. It must be done immediately.

4. Should computers be used in all possible sectors in India?
(I) Yes. It will bring down inefficiency and accuracy in the work.
(II) No. It will be an injustice to the monumental human resources that are at present under- utilized.

5. Should all the legislators be forced to resign from their profession?
(I) No. Nobody will then contest an election.
(II) Yes. They will then be able to devote more time for the country.

Answers: 1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (e) 5. (d)

Assumptions

In the following questions a statement is given followed by two assumptions marked (I) and (II). An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Mark answer (a) if assumption I alone is implicit,
Mark (b) if assumption II is implicit.
Mark (c) if either assumption I or II is implicit.
Mark (d) if neither I nor II is implicit.
Mark (e) if both the assumptions are implicit.

1. Call a dog mad and then shoot it.
(I) Generally any act should be socially acceptable.
(II) Dogs are not mad.

2. Be humble even after gaining victory.
(I) Many people are humble after gaining victory.
(II) Generally people are not humble.

3. It is dangerous to lean out of a running train.
(I) All those who lean out of a running train run the risk of getting hurt.
(II) Generally people do not want to get hurt.

4. “Buy pure and natural honey of company X” – an advertisement in a newspaper.
(I) Artificial honey can be prepared.
(II) People do not mind paying more for pure and natural honey.

5. “Buy pure and natural honey of company X” – an advertisement in a newspaper.
(I) No other company supplies pure and natural honey.
(II) People read advertisements.

6. The USA re-emerged as India’s largest importer in the early nineties.
(I) With swift political developments in the Soviet Union, India began to rely on USA.
(II) USA was the only country which wanted to meet the requirements of India.

7. India’s economy is mainly depending on forests.
(I) Trees should be preserved to improve Indian economy.
(II) India wants only maintenance of forests to improve economic conditions.

8. If water pollution continues at its present rate, it will eventually make oxygen molecules unavailable to water plants.
(I) Water pollution affects the growth of water plants.
(II) Water pollution reduces the availability of oxygen in water.

9. If Dr. Ramesh’s theory is correct, then the events he predicts will happen. The events he predicted did happen. Therefore his theory must be correct.

The conclusion drawn in the argument above would be valid if one of the following were to be true. Identify the same.

(A) Only Dr. Ramesh’s theory fully explains the events that happened.
(B) If the events Dr. Ramesh predicted happen, then his theory is correct.
(C) If Dr. Ramesh’s theory is correct, then the events he predicted may happen.
(D) Only Dr. Ramesh predicted the events which happened.

Answers: 1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (d)

8. (e) 9. (a)

Author: RAMAKRISHNAN

Retired banker with more than 40 years of experience in the financial sector, presently using time in helping prospective students and others in the preparation for their competitive exams.

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