Reasoning – 8

Reasoning – 8

Arguments

In making decisions about important questions it is desirable to distinguish between ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ arguments so far as they relate to the question. ‘Weak’ arguments may not directly be related to the question and may be of minor importance or may be related the trivial aspects of the question.

Each question below is followed by two arguments, marked I and II. Please decide which of the arguments a strong argument and which is weak argument.

Mark answer (a) if only argument I alone is strong.
Mark (b) if argument II is strong.
Mark (c) if either argument I or II is strong.
Mark (d) if neither I nor II is strong.
Mark (e) if both the arguments are strong.

1. Should Doordarshan be given autonomous status?
(I) Yes. It will help Doordarshan to have fair and impartial coverage of all important events.
(II) No. The coverage of events will be decided by a few who may not have a healthy outlook.

2. Should private companies be allowed to operate air services in India?
(I) Yes. Indian private management usually gives better services.
(II) No. We should not imitate the western countries.

3. Should all the remote parts of the country be connected by road?
(I) No. It will disturb the peaceful simple life of the villagers.
(II) Yes. It must be done immediately.

4. Should computers be used in all possible sectors in India?
(I) Yes. It will bring down inefficiency and accuracy in the work.
(II) No. It will be an injustice to the monumental human resources that are at present under- utilized.

5. Should all the legislators be forced to resign from their profession?
(I) No. Nobody will then contest an election.
(II) Yes. They will then be able to devote more time for the country.

Answers: 1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (e) 5. (d)

Assumptions

In the following questions a statement is given followed by two assumptions marked (I) and (II). An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Mark answer (a) if assumption I alone is implicit,
Mark (b) if assumption II is implicit.
Mark (c) if either assumption I or II is implicit.
Mark (d) if neither I nor II is implicit.
Mark (e) if both the assumptions are implicit.

1. Call a dog mad and then shoot it.
(I) Generally any act should be socially acceptable.
(II) Dogs are not mad.

2. Be humble even after gaining victory.
(I) Many people are humble after gaining victory.
(II) Generally people are not humble.

3. It is dangerous to lean out of a running train.
(I) All those who lean out of a running train run the risk of getting hurt.
(II) Generally people do not want to get hurt.

4. “Buy pure and natural honey of company X” – an advertisement in a newspaper.
(I) Artificial honey can be prepared.
(II) People do not mind paying more for pure and natural honey.

5. “Buy pure and natural honey of company X” – an advertisement in a newspaper.
(I) No other company supplies pure and natural honey.
(II) People read advertisements.

6. The USA re-emerged as India’s largest importer in the early nineties.
(I) With swift political developments in the Soviet Union, India began to rely on USA.
(II) USA was the only country which wanted to meet the requirements of India.

7. India’s economy is mainly depending on forests.
(I) Trees should be preserved to improve Indian economy.
(II) India wants only maintenance of forests to improve economic conditions.

8. If water pollution continues at its present rate, it will eventually make oxygen molecules unavailable to water plants.
(I) Water pollution affects the growth of water plants.
(II) Water pollution reduces the availability of oxygen in water.

9. If Dr. Ramesh’s theory is correct, then the events he predicts will happen. The events he predicted did happen. Therefore his theory must be correct.

The conclusion drawn in the argument above would be valid if one of the following were to be true. Identify the same.

(A) Only Dr. Ramesh’s theory fully explains the events that happened.
(B) If the events Dr. Ramesh predicted happen, then his theory is correct.
(C) If Dr. Ramesh’s theory is correct, then the events he predicted may happen.
(D) Only Dr. Ramesh predicted the events which happened.

Answers: 1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (d)

8. (e) 9. (a)

English Verbal – 19

English – Verbal – 19

The following are some common mistakes made in the English language and their correct version.
(Sourced)

Incorrect What is the difference of these two things?
Correct What is the difference between these two things?

Incorrect What is the time on your watch?
Correct What is the time by your watch?

Incorrect Lucy has been absent from Monday?
Correct Lucy has been absent since Monday?

Incorrect We will tolerate no interference with our internal affairs.
Correct We will tolerate no interference in our internal affairs.

Incorrect The answer of this question is quite complicated.
Correct The answer to this question is quite complicated.

Incorrect Under the help of an influential friend, he got the job.
Correct With the help of an influential friend, he got the job.

Incorrect Nobody is bound to suffering.
Correct Nobody is bound to suffer.

Incorrect Some people are not used to live in a hot country.
Correct Some people are not used to living in a hot country.

Incorrect Susan is incapable to complete the task by herself.
Correct Susan is incapable of completing the task by herself.

Incorrect Nobody can avoid to make mistakes.
Correct Nobody can avoid making mistakes.

The following are some of the Verbal Questions picked up from various IT companies’ placement Papers

In the following questions:
Select the best alternative to the portion in the sentence which is in inverted comma. Select the portion that you think is the best option. Be attentive to matters of grammar, diction and syntax as well as clarity, precision and fluency. Do not select the answer which alters the meaning of the original sentence.

1. “May I venture to say that I think this performance is the most superior” I have ever heard
(a) May I venture to say that I think this performance is the most superior.
(b) May I venture to say that this performance is the most superior.
(c) May I say that this performance is the most superior.
(d) I think this performance is superior to any.
(e) This performance is the most superior of any.
Ans: (d)

2. “When one eats in this restaurant, you often find” that the prices are high and the food is poorly prepared.
(a) When one eats in this restaurant, you often find.
(b) When one eats in this restaurant, one often find.
(c) As you eat in this restaurant, you often find.
(d) If you eat in this restaurant, you often find.
(e) When one ate in this restaurant, he often found.
Ans: (c)

3. “She not only was competent but also friendly” in nature.
(a) She not only was competent but also friendly.
(b) Not only was she competent but friendly also.
(c) She not only was competent but friendly also
(d) She was not only competent but also friendly.
(e) She was not only competent but friendly also.
Ans: (d)

4. “We want the teacher to be him” who has the best rapport with the students.
(a) We want the teacher to be him.
(b) We want the teacher to be he.
(c) We want him to be the teacher.
(d) We desire that the teacher be him.
(e) We anticipate that the teacher will be him.
Ans: (c)

5. “Using it wisely”, leisure promotes health, efficiency and happiness.
(a) Using it wisely.
(b) If used wisely.
(c) Having used it wisely.
(d) Because it is used wisely.
(e) Because of usefulness.
Ans: (b)

Reasoning – 7

Reasoning – 7
1. The town of Paranda is located on Green Lake. The town of Akram is west of Paranda. Kakran is east of Bopri but west of Tokhada and Akram. If they are all on the same district, which town is the farthest west?
(a) Paranda (b) Kakran (c) Akram (d) Tokhada (e) Bopri

2. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and thus forms a group. Which one does not belong to the group?
(a) February (b) March (c) April (d) May (e) June

3. If A * B means ‘A is the mother of B’ and A x B means ‘A is the husband of B’ which of the following show ‘P is the father of Q’?
(a) Q * M x P (b) P * Q (c) Q * P (d) P x M * Q (e) None of these

4. A bus from Mumbai leaves every forty minutes from a bus stand. An enquiry clerk told a passenger that the bus had already left ten minutes ago, and the next bus would leave at 9.45 a.m. At what time did the enquiry clerk give this information to the passenger?
(a) 9.05 a.m. (b) 9.35 a.m. (c) 8.55 a.m. (d) 9.15 a.m. (e) 9.25 a.m.

5. In a row of girls, if Seeta who is 10th from the left and Lima who is 7th from the right interchange their seats, Seeta becomes 15th from the left. How many girls are there in the row?
(a) 17 (b) 20 (c) 22 (d) 25 (e) None of these

6. In the following series, how many numbers of 5 that is not preceded by 3 but is immediately followed by 7 are there?
1 5 7 3 5 7 4 7 3 7 2 5 6 5 7 5 7 4 5 6 3 5 7
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) 5

7. In a certain code ‘JUDICIAL’ is written as ‘LADICIUJ’. How is ‘GLORIOUS’ written in that code?
(a) GLOIROUS (b) USDRIOGL (c) SOUIROLG (d) LGORIOSU (e) None of these

8. In a telephone directory which of the following names will appear in the middle?
(a) Rajratnam (b) Rajrathanam (c) Rajrathnam (d) Rajratanam (e) Raajrathnam

9. Words are arranged alphabetically in a dictionary because:
(a) It is the simplest method
(b) It is the practice
(c) It enables finding any word quickly
(d) It makes for ease in printing
(e) It saves space by avoiding repetition

10. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to the group?
(a) Beam (b) Column (c) House (d) Roof (e) Wall

11. Which of the following must a ‘Drama’ have?
(a) Actor (b) Story (c) Director (d) Sets (e) Spectators

12. If orange is called butter, butter is called soap, soap is called ink, ink is called honey, and honey is called orange, which of the following is used for washing clothes?
(a) Honey (b) Butter (c) Orange (d) Soap (e) None of these

13. Disease is related to Pathology in the same way as Planet is related to?
(a) Sun (b) Satellite (c) Astrology (d) Astronomy (e) Orbit

14. If South-East becomes North, North-East become West and so on what will West become?
(a) North-East (b) North-West (c) South-East (d) South-West (e) South

15. If ‘+’ means ‘minus’, ‘-‘ means ‘multiplied’ by, ‘/’ means ‘plus’ and ‘x’ means ‘divided’ by then
10 x 5 /3 – 2 + 3 = ?
(a) -26/16 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 172/3 (e) None of these

Answers:
1. (e) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (e) Ans: 21
6. (c) 7. (e) Ans: SUORIOLG 8. (b) 9. (c)
10. (c) 11. (b) 12. (e) 13. (d) 14. (c)
15. (b)

English – Verbal & Reasoning – 3

English – Verbal & Reasoning – 3
Two passages are given hereunder, followed by five inferences on each of them that can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine the inferences separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark your answer:
(a) If the inference is ‘definitely true’ if it properly follows from the statement of facts;
(b) If the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ from the statement of facts;
(c) If the data are inadequate to arrive at an answer;
(d) If the inference is ‘probably false’ though not ‘definitely false’ from the statement of facts;
(e) And if the inference is ‘definitely false’ from the statement of facts.

(Note: The two passages are culled from old CAT examination papers and the data thereon may not be relevant to the present day situation. However, the intent in presenting them is to give the readers an opportunity to understand the manner in which questions are drafted.)

Passage 1

According to trade estimates, the black pepper crop will be in the range of 75,000 to 90,000 tons, during the pepper season from November 1989 to October 1990. The crop will thus be the double of that of the 1988-89 season. Besides a good monsoon, the record production is attributed to the crash program launched in Kerala by the state government last June. Although 80 percent of the country’s total black pepper production is from Kerala, the yield per hectare is low at 300kg, as compared to550kg in Indonesia and 1200 kg in Brazil.

1. India exports more black pepper than Brazil.
Ans: (e)

2. The black pepper crop during 1988-89 was about 30,000 tons.
Ans: (b)

3. In no other state in the country is the black pepper yield more than 300kg per hectare.
Ans; (c)

4. The Central Government helped the Kerala Government in implementing the crash program
Ans: (e)

5. A good water supply is needed for cultivating black pepper.
Ans: (c)

Passage 2

The only dark cloud on the economic horizon is the rather unsatisfactory foreign exchange position, and one may hope that industry will play its role in improving it by contributing to its export. The all-round progress of our company is continuing. I am happy to report that during the first half of the current year (April – September 1989), there have been further improvements in its working.

6. The country is having inadequate foreign exchange reserves.
Ans: (a)
7. The current financial year of the company will end on 31st March, 1990.
Ans: (a)

8. In foreign countries there is no demand for the products manufactured by the company.
Ans: (e)

9. The Government of the country has asked the company to export its goods.
Ans: (b)

10. The report is presented by the Chairman of the company to the shareholders.
Ans:(c)

Reasoning – Decision Making

Read the following information and then answer the questions that follow:

A company has the following Gratuity (G) and Provident Fund (PF) rules.

1. An employee must have completed one year service to be eligible for either G and PF.
2. An employee resigning, retiring or retrenched after 10 years’ service gets both G and PF
3. An employee retrenched or retired after 5 years but before 10 years’ service gets both G and PF;
But those resigning during this period get either G or PF.
4. An employee retrenched or retired before 5 years’ service gets PF but not G; but those resigning during this period gets neither G nor PF.
5. In case an employee dies after 2 years’ service, his family gets both G and PF.
6. In case an employee was on leave without pay, such period is deducted from his total years’ of service and then the above rules are applied.
7. In the case of a lady employee, if she has completed 2 years’ service, two more years are added to her actual service before applying the above rules, as a special consideration.

Mark your answer:
(a) If only G can be given
(b) If only PF can be given
(c) If either G or PF can be given
(d) If both G and PF can be given
(e) If neither G nor PF can be given.

1. Mr. Kamal serving the company for five years (out of which for one year he was on leave without pay), was retrenched from service.

2. Miss. Sarita served the company for four years and resigned.

3. Mrs. Padmaja served the company for five years and was retrenched.

4. Mr. Basu served in the company for seven years and resigned after a prolonged illness of three years during which he was on leave without pay.

5. Mr. Dixit served in the company for five years and resigned.

6. Mr. Som after four years of service in the company resigned.

7. Mrs. Vanaja served for 18 months in the company and was retrenched.

8. Mr. Junejo while serving the company for three years died.

9. Mr Vakil was retrenched from the company after seven years.

10. Mrs. Pamela was retrenched from service by the company after her putting in three years of service of which she was on loss of pay for 18 months.

Answers:

1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (e) 5. (c) 6. (e) 7. (b) 8. (d) 9. (d) 10. (b)